Vitamine B3


Uncategorized / mercredi, février 28th, 2018

Rôle général

La vitamine B3, ou PP, ou encore Niacine, est importante pour la production d’énergie via la respiration cellulaire, participe à la production d’hormones, joue sur la transmission de l’influx neveux, améliore l’humeur, ainsi que la circulation du sang de par son action vasodilatatrice. Elle intervient dans la fabrication de l’hémoglobine et permets une bonne mémoire. La vitamine B3 est nécessaire comme cofacteur au métabolisme des protéines, des glucides et des lipides. Elle stimule la synthèse de kératine, constituant des cheveux et de la peau. Elle est utilisée comme anti-cholestérol et arrête la progression de l’athérosclérose.

Elle n’est que peu stockée, le corps en a des réserves pour 2 à 6 semaines environ. Il est donc important d’en consommer quotidiennement.

Rôle pour la peau

La vitamine B3 est essentielle pour la peau. Elle interviens dans la fabrication des hormones sexuelles (œstrogènes, progestérone, testostérone) et sur la production d’insuline. Toutes ces hormones, on le sait, jouent sur la beauté de la peau. Elle permet une bonne production de kératine qui est un constituant de la couche cornée de la peau.

Propriétés

  • hydrosoluble (soluble dans l’eau)
  • soluble dans l‘alcool
  • insoluble dans l’huile
  • stable à la lumière
  • résiste à la chaleur
  • stable à l’oxydation
  • résiste aux acides
  • bonne association avec les autres vitamines du groupe B, le lithium et le magnésium

Conservation & Cuisson

La vitamine B3 est la vitamine la moins fragile parmi les vitamines hydrosolubles.

Malgré le fait qu’elle résiste bien à la chaleur il peut y avoir des pertes importante en B3 lors d’une cuisson à l’eau car elle se propage dans l’eau de cuisson.

Besoins journaliers & Carences

Les AJR* sont de 15-18mg/jour, sauf pour les sportifs ou les besoins sont doublés (25 à 50mg/jour)!

La vitamine B3 peut être synthétisée par le corps à partir d’un acide aminé essentiel: le tryptophane.

Sources

La vitamine B3 est assez répandue dans les aliments contenant de l’eau.

On la trouve particulièrement dans la levure de bière (38mg/100g), les cacahuètes (18.3mg/100g), le thon (10.8mg/100g), le gingembre (9.62mg/100g), le maquereau (7.7mg/100g), le saumon (7mg/100g), les champignons (6.2mg/100g), les poires (3.8mg/1 fruit), les amandes (3.39mg/100g), le thym (3.28mg/100g), les noix de macadamia (2.47mg/100g), les dattes (2mg/100g), les pommes de terre (1.73mg/100g), le maïs (1.68mg/100g), les poivrons (1.3mg/100g), les avocats (1mg/100g), les artichauts (1mg/100g), les épinards (0.6mg/100g).

 

*AJR: Apports Journaliers Recommandés

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